Build Instructions for Ubuntu

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Build Instructions for Ubuntu

Reference: Ubuntu 15.04 Vivid Vervet

Build Pre-requisites

sudo apt-get install build-essential git

Useful for building or troubleshooting older builds:

sudo apt-get install u-boot-tools sunxi-tools

Getting the Cross-Toolchain

See also: Toolchain

  • Add the ArmHF architecture
sudo dpkg --add-architecture armhf
  • Modify existing sources, restricting to appropriate architectures (i.e. all i386 and amd64 package sources are prefixed as "deb [arch=i386,amd64]")
sudo sed 's~\(\(deb\(-src\)*\) \([^\[]\)\)~\2 [arch=i386,amd64] \4~' /etc/apt/sources.list | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list
#Manually configure third party sources
sudo sed 's~\(\(deb\(-src\)*\) \([^\[]\)\)~\2 [arch=i386,amd64] \4~' /etc/apt/sources.list.d/*.list
  • Create source list for the port architecture(s) (this adds the armhf port sources to apt)
sudo bash -c 'cat > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/armhf-ports.list <<EOT
deb [arch=armhf] http://ports.ubuntu.com/ `lsb_release -cs` main universe multiverse restricted
deb [arch=armhf] http://ports.ubuntu.com/ `lsb_release -cs`-updates main universe multiverse restricted
deb [arch=armhf] http://ports.ubuntu.com/ `lsb_release -cs`-security main universe multiverse restricted
EOT'
  • Update apt and install crossbuild tools for armhf
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install crossbuild-essential-armhf

Building u-boot

Mainline u-boot works fine:

 git clone -b v2015.04 git://git.denx.de/u-boot.git
 cd u-boot
 make CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- Mele_A1000_defconfig
 make -j4 CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf-

search in the directory configs/ for your board, the file name looks like <board_name>_defconfig

(Also refer to Mainline_U-boot#Compile U-Boot)

Setting up the sd card

Enter an interactive superuser sudo shell

 sudo su -

${card} is the SD device (ie /dev/sdc). ${partition} is the partition number (ie. 1). Warning: This will delete the content.

 dd if=/dev/zero of=${card} bs=1M count=1
 dd if=u-boot-sunxi-with-spl.bin of=${card} bs=1024 seek=8

Create partition(s). ie one big partition beginning with sector 2048, type 83 (Linux)

 fdisk ${card}
 mkfs.ext4 ${card}${partition}
 mount ${card}${partition} /mnt

This will first clean the card (at least the first 1M), install the u-boot bootloader you compiled in the step before, and then you can create -for example- one partition, format it, and mount it to /mnt/ for use in the next steps.

(Also refer to Bootable_SD_card)

Ubuntu Core

https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Core

  • Download Ubuntu Core filesystem

Link to Ubuntu Core download:
Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet) - http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-core/releases/vivid/release/

  • Extract Ubuntu Core filesystem to the mounted SD card
cd /mnt
sudo tar zxvf $path_to_root_fs
  • Install qemu-arm-static
 sudo apt-get install qemu-user-static
  • Prepare chroot environment
 cp /usr/bin/qemu-arm-static /mnt/usr/bin/
 mount chproc /mnt/proc -t proc
 mount chsys /mnt/sys -t sysfs
 cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/etc/resolv.conf

will allow network access after chroot-ing (in step 7) by copying the DNS resolver configuration

  • Open a chroot session into the target root filesystem. This will allow you to install packages and configure the target system before it is bootable.
 sudo LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C chroot /mnt
 for f in /sys /proc /dev ; do mount --rbind $f /mnt/$f ; done ; chroot /mnt\

will go to a chroot, see Is there an easier way to chroot than bind-mounting? for details about mount rbind

 apt-get update && apt-get install linux-{headers,image}-generic

will install kernel ("linux")

Note: it's possible that apt-get update will not work because no network is present.

Ubuntu Core for Offline instalation

  • Download the Linux Kernel
apt-get download linux-generic:armhf flash-kernel:armhf linux-base linux-image-generic:armhf linux-headers-generic:armhf devio:armhf
  • Install flash-kernel
dpkg -i devio_1.2-1build2_armhf.deb
  • Install the kernel:
 # dpkg -i /tmp/$dependencies
 # dpkg -i /tmp/$kernel
  • Copy the kernel and any dependencies to the target root filesystem, e.g.
cp $path_to_kernel/*deb /mnt/tmp


Configuring the system

flash-kernel

We are going to use flash-kernel to generate the boot.src. Tell it which hardware we're aiming for. (Devices listed in: /usr/share/flash-kernel/db/all.db)

 mkdir /mnt/etc/flash-kernel/
 echo "Cubietech Cubietruck" >> /mnt/etc/flash-kernel/machine

Kernel arguments:

echo 'LINUX_KERNEL_CMDLINE="console=ttyS0,115200 hdmi.audio=EDID:0 disp.screen0_output_mode=EDID:1280x1024p60 root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rootwait panic=10 ${extra}"' >> /mnt/etc/default/flash-kernel

Kernel modules

Write extra modules that should be loaded at boot time to /mnt/etc/modules.

 echo "rtc_sunxi" >> /etc/initramfs-tools/modules

Base configuration files

 echo "/dev/mmcblk0p1  /           ext4    relatime,errors=remount-ro        0       1" > /mnt/etc/fstab
 echo "HOSTNAME" > /mnt/etc/hostname

Hint: Please consider using your favorite debian-mirror instead of ftp.debian.org.

cat <<EOF > /mnt/etc/apt/sources.list
# 

deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ testing main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ testing main non-free contrib

deb http://security.debian.org/ testing/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ testing/updates main contrib non-free

# testing-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ testing-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ testing-updates main contrib non-free
EOF
cat <<EOF > /mnt/etc/apt/sources.list.d/experimental.list
deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ unstable main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ unstable main non-free contrib

deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ experimental main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ experimental main non-free contrib
EOF
cat <<EOF > /mnt/etc/apt/preferences.d/experimental
Package: *
Pin: release o=Debian,a=unstable
Pin-Priority: 150

Package: *
Pin: release a=experimental
Pin-Priority: -10
EOF
cat <<EOF > /mnt/etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
EOF

Prepare Login

Remember: We won't have any display output, so we can eiter: spawn a login on the serial console:

 echo "T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 115200 vt100" >> /mnt/etc/inittab

and/or use ssh. Since debian disabled root password-login in jessie, re-enable it:

 sed -i "s/^PermitRootLogin without-password/PermitRootLogin yes/" /mnt/etc/ssh/sshd_config

or copy your key:

 umask 077; mkdir /mnt/root/.ssh/ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> /mnt/root/.ssh/authorized_keys

chroot and setup

Now chroot in to the new system, install kernel and set everything up.

 mount -t proc chproc /mnt/proc
 mount chsys /mnt/sys -t sysfs
 mount -t devtmpfs chdev /mnt/dev || mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev
 mount -t devpts chpts /mnt/dev/pts
 echo -e '#!/bin/sh\nexit 101' > /mnt/usr/sbin/policy-rc.d
 chmod 755 /mnt/usr/sbin/policy-rc.d
 DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive DEBCONF_NONINTERACTIVE_SEEN=true LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C chroot /mnt dpkg --configure -a
 LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C chroot /mnt

The next steps are executed inside the chroot:

   apt-get update
   apt-get install locales && dpkg-reconfigure locales
   dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Install the kernel and u-boot (u-boot from debian is not used, but it does no harm and i'll include it for future reference)

   apt-get -t experimental install linux-image-3.16-rc6-armmp-lpae u-boot u-boot-tools

Or, if you want simple frame-buffer support (on some cards) go with kernel >3.19:

   apt-get -t experimental install linux-image-3.19.0-trunk-armmp-lpae u-boot u-boot-tools

Install non-free firmware and add one currently missing file to the wifi-firmware:

   apt-get install firmware-linux firmware-brcm80211 sunxi-tools flash-kernel
   wget -O /lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43362-sdio.txt http://dl.cubieboard.org/public/Cubieboard/benn/firmware/ap6210/nvram_ap6210.txt

Install a few other things:

   apt-get install console-setup keyboard-configuration systemd systemd-sysv openssh-server ntp

At this point, debian should have generated a kernel image /boot/vmlinuz-??? and an initrd /boot/initrd.img-??? for you. Generate the /boot/boot.scr, set a password and after a little cleanup you're set:

   flash-kernel
   passwd root
   exit
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